ALVARADO

"Alvarado, fair to-night,
Bathed in streams of silver light!
Stars and moon from out the sky
Guard her with a loving eye.

"Queen of cities in the West,
Not the largest, but the best,
In my heart, in clouds of gold,
I your memory will infold."

(The above appropriate lines were composed by a young lady of Alvarado whose name was not published.)

Alvarado is in latitude 32½° north, and longitude 22° west of Washington. Its altitude above sea level is 900 to 1,000 feet. The earliest settler at this point was William Balch, in 1851. Almost immediately upon locating here, he, in company with G. H. Sigler, began the nucleus of a town on his land, laying off the plat in half-acre lots. These were bid off at public sale at about $10 each.

The citizens were asked by the proprietors to "agree upon a name for the new town. Mr. Balch himself suggested Pittsburg, and Mr. A. H. Onstott, then sheriff, suggested Alvarado, after a town of that name in old Mexico, favorably spoken of in Prescott's History of that country. He had been in the Mexican war and participated in a fight at that place. The vote of the settlers resulted in favor of Mr. Onstott's selection.

Others settling there and in the vicinity about that time were F. L. Kirtley, Daniel Payne, T. Jeff. Payne, John Gilmore, Mr. Bromley, Jonathan Burke, Granville Shannon, Robert Tandy, S. D. Bright, etc. Bright is said to have been the pioneer merchant of the place. Very soon after his venture the Payne brothers established themselves there also in a general mercantile business.

William P. Griffin located in the neighborhood of Alvarado in 1854, and L. B. Blair and son, Thomas W., came in 1856.

On account of the surrounding country being appropriated mostly by stockmen instead of agriculturists, the town did not grow as rapidly for a number of years as at first expected.

At this point it may be well to relate a number of scattering reminiscences, published by William Jack in the Bulletin of January 16 and 30, 1891:

"December 17,1862, I drove into Alvarado. There were with me two other families, W. M. Wilhite and Samuel Miller; there were thirty-three of us altogether. Of that number there are still living twenty-eight. This is a testimonial to the general healthfulness of the country.

"In crossing Cedar hill in Dallas county we could see no signs of civilization, and thought we had gone too far, but found a few settlers on Mountain creek. On reaching Alvarado we found a few families of women and children and some old men, the young men all being in the army. We do not suppose there were over 300 men in Johnson county. There was only one Masonic lodge west of Waxahachie, and that was at Grand View. Our meetings were attended by parties from Hillsboro, Acton and Rock creek, in Tarrant county.

"We were kindly received by the people here, but there were no supplies in the country for our teams or ourselves, except beef, which was abundant and as fine as I ever saw, and at fair prices. Corn and wheat were very scarce. We were told that we could not make a living here by farming, and that there was corn for sale some seventy-five miles down the Trinity river, near Wildcat bluff. Miller and Wilhite had horse teams, and went there for corn. I turned out my cattle to shift for themselves, and went to making rails for corn, and then went to making looms and wheels for soldiers' families, and by economy and perseverance succeeded in securing a sufficiency of such as the country afforded, which was beef, bread and barley coffee. Since that time I have seen more corn and wheat in Johnson county than I ever saw in any county, and as fine hogs as were ever raised in Kentucky or Tennessee.

"Of the few families and some of the old men in and around Alvarado when I first came here, most have died or moved away. The deceased are William Balch, George Sigler, Granville Shannon, Colonel Sam Myers, Joel Higgins, Blackburn Blair, Lewis Richardson, Joel Combes and Simpson Head. These are still living here: Major N. F. Sparks, Moses Barnes, Thomas Richardson, Judge J. G. Woodson and John G. Mitchell; and the changes in the country are equal to the changes in population, which is more than ten to one. There was but one respectable residence in the county, to my knowledge, and that was Meredith Hart's house, on the Mustang, and only two church buildings, one at Grand View and one at Alvarado; and they were used by all denominations for public services and also for schoolhouses. There were several sorry log-cabin schoolhouses and brush arbors where people met to worship. Now there are respectable frame schoolhouses in every neighborhood in the county, and the church buildings I am not able to number. In the county there are probably twenty-three or twenty-four Baptist churches and others in like proportion, all very respectable church edifices, and many of them are magnificent.

"At that time one could go almost in a straight line to any place, but now we are confined to the public highways, the country being almost entirely enclosed either as farms or as pastures. No cotton was grown here in those days."

In 1876 there were three or four dozen families residing at Alvarado. There were eight dry-goods stores, two groceries, two drug stores, two blacksmith shops, a saloon or two, and occasionally a saddle and harness shop; but the great institution of the place was the Masonic school. In 1879 business houses bounded the public square, besides others in the vicinity. The population grew to 100 in 1876, and 350 in 1879.

About 1870 the outlaws, Bickerstaff and Thompson, met their violent death (see page 111) here at Alvarado, and the lynching had a good effect. Such a proceeding has been common elsewhere, in almost every community. The most extensive of the kind that has ever taken place in America was in San Francisco, California, in 1856, when several thousand citizens systematically and closely organized themselves into a "vigilance committee" and ran the city, as it were; by military power until they had hung a few murderers and scared away nearly all other criminals, thus purifying the place far more thoroughly and quickly than the courts would have done.

While speaking of criminal matters we may here add the item that James Collins, a horse-thief, fleeing from Fannin county, was caught near Alvarado in May, 1875, and shot and killed by the officers in his attempt to escape. The officers, Cape and Lewis, were obliged to shoot or be shot, as the fugitive reached down into his saddle-bags after a pistol in order to fire upon them; He was a desperate fellow.

Coming down to the prosperity of more modern times, we may observe that the exports at Alvarado during the year ending August 31, 1882, were 4,000 bales of cotton, 10,000 pounds of wool and three car-loads of hides and peltries. The sales of imported articles were: dry goods, clothing, hats and caps, and millinery, $150,000; groceries, confections, bagging and ties, $100,000; liquors, beer and tobaccos, $94,000; ice, $1,400; woodwork, lumber, etc., $50,000; drugs, paint, oils, etc., $35,000; hardware, agricultural implements, wagons, etc., $75,090.

Alvarado is in the center of one of the best farming districts in Texas.

To show the advance that Alvarado has made, we wish now to take a glance around the public square, commencing at the northeast corner and going west:

First National Bank, chartered March 10, 1887. See further on.

M. L. Pankey, manager of the Alvarado branch of the lumber business of O. T. Lyon & Son, of Sherman, Texas, since 1881: carry $20,000 in stock; yards centrally located between old and new towns.

Major H. R. Jones, grocer since 1883.

C. A. Gardiner, dry goods.

J. C. Smyth, hardware, tinware, stoves, etc.

W. A. Prestridge & Co., drugs and books.

A. F. Sonntag, dentist.

J. P. Fielder, drugs.

Trulove & Trulove, watches and jewelry.

W. Mayfield, grocer. In the second story, the Bulletin office, an account of which is given further on; G. C. Fahm, insurance agent; Andrew King, lawyer; central telephone office, established in 1882, of which Miss Jessie McElree has been manager since 1883.

J. R. Trulove, dry goods and clothing.

Colston, Kelsey & Co., confectioneries.

Bounds & Moore, furniture and coffins.

Wells, Fargo & Co. and Pacific Express offices.

J. L. Poff & Co., notions.

Roberta Bros., second-hand furnitnre.

H. A. Austin, photograph gallery.

C. H. Park, hardware, stoves and tinware.

I. A. Patton, lawyer.

Turning south on west side:

Norman & Brickey, drugs and books.

J. P. Reynolds, dry goods and groceries.

A. D. Deam, saddle and harness.

R. J. Rork, confectionery.

R. S. Holmes, grocer .

J. W. Stark, jewelry, watches, clocks, etc.

Oakes & Harrison, fire insurance.

R. T. Duncan, grocer.

W. G. Belden, dry goods.

Mrs. M. K. Evans, millinery and dressmaking.

J. C. Weaver & Son, drugs.

W. M. St. John, dentist.

Turning east:

G. W. Cotter, postmaster .

Porter Bros., grocers.

E. A. Shultz, livery.

Wright & Son, a large blacksmith shop.

Turning north:

Charles Simmons, livery.

R. P. Sansom, feed store and wagon yard.

Powell Bros., blacksmith and wood shop.

East of the square, two hotels, —the Sparks House and the Commercial Hotel.

The First National Bank was organized in 1880, by Ben Barnes and O. H. Park. In 1881 Barnes was succeeded by L. B. Trulove. See sketch of L. B. Trulove a little further on. The present officers are: M. Sansom, president; Ben Barnes, vice-president; and J. R. Posey, cashier. Present surplus, $8,000.

The Alvarado Bank, in connection with a dry-goods store near the northeast corner of the public square, was also started about 1880, by G. W. Cotter, Moses Barnes and C. H. Park.

Two lines of railroad cross at Alvarado, the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe and the Missouri, Kansas & Texas (the latter, the initials of which are M., K. & T., often abbreviated to the fancy name of "Katy"). A short sketch of all the railroads in the county is given on pages 122 to 124, but we may add here a miscellaneous item of interest, occurring near Alvarado, illustrating one of the difficulties of railroad-building not often thought of. In 1881 a special commission was appointed by the county judge to adjust the differences between certain citizens in the neighborhood of Alvarado and what was then called the Missouri Pacific Railroad Company. The witnesses for each party gave testimony according to the parties summoning them, one class that the damages were considerable, and the other that they were none at all! This was as to the right of way over about six acres of Mr. Baker's land and the lands of Head & Wilburn. It was really amusing to see the vast difference of opinion. Compromises were finally effected.

Daily trains commenced running on the Missouri Pacific (now Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe) at Alvarado August 8, 1881. There are now about 200 railroad men belonging to the "Katy" system employed at Alvarado, whose total monthly salary is about $13,000.

The Alvarado Bulletin is a transfer from Cleburne of the Bulletin that was started there August 4, 1880. About eight months after its establishment it was removed to Alvarado, the first issue here being April 15, 1881. G. C. Fahm was editor for nine years. The latter, early in 1889, sold out to F. B. Baillio, an intellectual and social gentleman, but bought it back early in the present year (1892). Mr. Baillio's first issue was dated January 4,1889. Mr. Fahm is a very polite, modest and accommodating gentleman, and well understands how to keep up a live and progressive paper, in keeping with the demands of the times. The Bulletin has ever been one of the most potent instrumentalities in the advancement of Alvarado. The paper is a nine column folio, all "home print."

Grover C. Fahm, GEDCOM one of the early newspaper men of his section, was born in South Carolina, in 1846, a son of George W. Fahm, a rice planter of South Carolina. The latter subsequently moved to Georgia, where he was engaged in the mercantile business. The paternal grandfather of our subject, John J. Fahm, was a soldier in the war of 1812, and was Major of the regiment in which he served. The mother of our subject, Sarah L. (Coe) Fahm, was a native of Newark, New Jersey, and a daughter of Dr. Grover Coe, a native of England. G. W. Fahm was a prosperous planter and merchant at the breaking out of the late war, but after the firing at Fort Sumter he joined the Twenty sixth Georgia Infantry as a private, and was promoted to Regimental Officer, and participated in a number of battles in Louisiana and Tennessee. Mr. and Mrs. Fahm had thirteen children, only six of whom lived to be grown, viz.: Frances, widow of E. Summerall, of Georgia; George E., engaged in railroading in Georgia; Rosa, wife of Alfred Green; Eliza, widow of G. McMitchell; Grover, our subject; Benjamin A., of Georgia. The father died in 1876, and the mother ill 1888.

Grover C. Fahm received his education in Georgia, and at the age of fifteen years he entered Company K, Twenty-sixth Georgia Infantry, but was transferred to the Twenty-second Battalion of Georgia, and attached to General Joseph E. Johnston's army. He participated in the memorable battles of Chickamauga, Oulusta, in the siege of Savannah, was at James' Island during the siege and surrender of Charleston, Branchville and Dingle's Mills, where he lost his right leg, and was also shot through the arm. He was in the hands of the enemy a few hours, and this occurred April 9, 1865, the day of, General Lee's surrender. After ten months Mr. Fahm had recovered sufficiently as to be able to go on crutches, and he attended school for some time, and then engaged in the newspaper business, having worked as a journeyman some time. In 1876 he came to Texas, locating in the southwestern part, where he remained until 1880, and in that year he bought a one-half interest in a paper in Cleburne. In the spring of 1881 he came to this city and established the Alvarado Bulletin which he conducted successfully until 1889, and then sold to F. B. Baillio; but in February, 1892, he bought back the paper. This paper has enjoyed from the start a very large patronage, and under the able management of Mr. Fahm it is a power. The paper is and has been a welcome visitor to many firesides in this and adjoining counties, being Democratic in its principles. Mr. Fahm is also engaged in fire insurance. In 1888 he was elected Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of I. O. O. F., and the duties of this office were such that he could not attend to both his editorial work and fill his position at the same time, and accordingly, in 1889, he sold the paper, as before stated. He is also a member of the order of Knights of Pythias, Alvarado Lodge, No.128.

Mr. Fahm was married in 1868, to Miss E. E. Frazer, a native of Georgia, and a daughter of George R. Frazer, a native of South Carolina. Mr. and Mrs. Fahm have had seven children, namely: Lou, deceased; John F., of Alvarado; Grover W., Benjamin C. and Laura A., at home. The parents are members of the Methodist Church.

A good index to the intelligent character of a people is the amount of post-office businees transacted among them. The post-office money-order business of Alvarado averages about $26,000 a year. During the year 1891 the postmaster here issued $17,910.43 in money orders, and paid $8,405.44. The gross receipts for stamps, etc., were $2,523.60.

The citizens of Alvarado intend soon to have an artesian well.

The city is growing, being filled with the best class of people. In 1880 the population was 350; in 1882, 1,500; and according to the census of 1890 it had 1,543, which number, however, falls far short of the actual number in the city and its suburbs; there are, in fact, about 2,000 inhabitants in the place.

The assessed valuation of property within the corporate limits in 1880 was $125,000, and in 1890 over $600,000. In 1889 the value of various mercantile transactions of the town amounted to the following: dry-goods, $270,000; groceries, $250,000; hardware, $150,000; agricultural implements, $300,000; furniture $20,000 (considerably more now) ; and produce $5,000. During the same year there were bought and sold by the merchants of the place, 8,500 bales of cotton, 2,800 pounds of wool, 300 tons of cotton-seed, 300,000 bushels of corn, 75,000 bushels of wheat, 1,000 head of live-stock, and miscellaneous products to the amount of $200,000. These estimates serve to illustrate the fact that the country around Alvarado is one of the richest and most productive on this globe, and that the town presents the most inviting field for the most unlimited investments.

The lawyers practicing in Alvarado are I. A. Patton, Andrew King and W. B. Skelton. The physicians are: John Duke, ———Simonds, O. S. Carlow, J. A. Russell, B. G. Prestridge, C. A. Shultz, C. P. Hudson, H. C. Purdom, D. N. Shropshire and J. C. Weaver. The last mentioned, however, has virtually retired from practice. He is the oldest living business man in Alvarado, the second oldest being J. W. Stark, and the third H. R. Jones.

In times past A. H. Yeager and Paul C. Hudson were lawyers here; Hudson edited the Bulletin for a time and finally died, in Alvarado. Some of the most prominent physicians of the past were Drs. C. Atchley, ———Smith, ———Fielder and L. B. Allen, all of whom are now dead. Allen was killed December 31, 1885. W. M. St. John and A. F. Sonntag are the dentists.

Dr. J. W. Bowers is practicing at Venus, C. E. Russell, at Philpot League, H. W. Culpepper and D. N. Shropshire, at Barnesville.

In the autumn of 1878 the Alvarado Mutual Protection Association was organized, whose object was the "maintenance and enforcement of all laws constitutionally enacted until repealed or shall be declared null and void by competent judicial authority."

The Alvarado Board of Trade was organized May 23, 1890. The following paper, with the signatures was distributed: "We, the undersigned, business men of Alvarado, feeling the necessity of organizing a progressive committee or board of trade to further the interests and business enterprises of our city, hereby agree to go into said organization, for the purpose of doing all in our power to build up and promote said enterprises and watch all opportunities to improve our city." Signed by F. B. Baillio, G. C. Fahm, and about fifty others.

March 21, 1891, the business men of Alvarado met at the office of Bounds & Moore, and organized a branch of the "Merchants' Mercantile Agency of Chicago, Illinois," for protection against dishonest men. J. C. Smyth was elected president; W. R. Bounds, vice-president; M. L. Pankey, secretary; F. B. Baillio, treasurer; executive board —M. V. Bain, J. W. Garrett, R. S. Holmes, J. P. Reynolds, J. H. Costolo, G. W. Cotter and J. C. Golding. Eleven firms signed the agreement. The parent organization is an association incorporated under the laws of lliinois, to transact business anywhere in the United States.

Lemuel B. Trulove, GEDCOM, president of the bank of Cotter, Trulove & Co., and one of the most prominent farmers of Johnson county, was born in Alabama, in 1823, a son of William and Malinda (Bird) Trulove, natives of South Carolina and Tennessee respectively. The parents removed to Alabama in an early day, while the Indians were still in that section, and where the father was engaged in farming. Mr. and Mrs. Tru1ove reared a family of three boys and four girls, namely: ——Lemuel B., our subject; Margaret, wife of Reuben Vanghan, of Palo Pinto county; Elizabeth, widow of J. O. Robinson, and a resident of this county; Calledonia, wife of C. M. Bess, of Johnson county; J. R. also of Johnson county; Victoria, deceased, was the wife of W. R. Bounds; and John, who died in the Confederate army in the late war.

Lemuel Trulove received a limited education, attending school only seven months, but since arriving at man's estate has applied himself closely to study, and is now recognized as one of the beet posted men in his county. He began life for himself as a farmer at the age of nineteen years, and one year later engaged in the mercantile business, and also in trading in stock, etc. At the breaking out of the late war he was worth about $60,000, but at its close had only about one-fifth of that, and he engaged in farming, with free negro labor. In 1870 he came from Alabama to this State with wagons, requiring six weeks to make the trip, and landed in Dallas county, June 10, 1870. A few months later Mr. Trulove bought part of his present farm, 600 acres, paying from $3 to $4 per acre, and he now has over 2,000 acres under a fine state of cultivation. He has a handsome residence, and all the necessary outbuildings to be found on a well regulated farm; he also owns an interest in two ginning plants. In 1883 he engaged in the banking business, under the firm name of Cotter, Trulove & Co., and does a general banking business.

Mr. Trulove was married in 1852, in Alabama, to Miss Anna B. Spears, a daughter of John and Edith (Atkins) Spears, natives of North Carolina, and early settlers of Alabama. Mr. and Mrs. Trulove have had eight children. —Alice, who died in this county at the age of nineteen years; Jauniata, deceased; K. S., of Johnson county; L. B., Otis, Halley, Alice and one deceased in infancy. Mr. Trulove is a member of the A. F. & A. M., and of Alvarado Lodge, No.132, R. A. M., and Mrs. Trulove belongs to the Methodist Episcopal Church.

ALVARADO CORPORATION

Alvarado was first incorporated by an act of the legislature in 1878, and as a city June 1, 1885. At the first election for municipal officers J. H. Wright was chosen mayor and James St. John, marshal. Under the auspices of the corporation, a fine two-story frame city hall building graces the middle of the public square; and recently the city has issued bonds to the extent of $8,000 for street improvements and sewers, —although these are scarcely needed on such a clean, dry hill as that upon which the city is situated.

Prof. I. A. Patton has recently compiled and published with great care a neat pamphlet of 103 large octavo pages, entitled "Revised Ordinances of the City of Alvarado, and Rules of Order of the City Council." The code of laws of this city is not inferior to any in the State.

The present city officers are: J. A. Russell, mayor; J. W. Stark, secretary; W. O. Poff, marshal; I. A. Patton, city attorney; aldermen from the first ward, A. D. Oakes and J. B. Poindexter; second ward, T. W. Harrison, mayor pro tem and G. G. Golding; third ward, W. F. Moore and G. C. Fahm.

SCHOOLS

In respect to education in Alvarado, by far the most conspicuous figure is the old Masonic Institute, on "College Hill" west of town, ——the hill being named after the institute.

After the community had years ago suffered seriously for a long time from the disadvantages of repeated failure to secure a permanent school, many of the citizens concluded that the Freemasons, being an organization of considerable strength at this place, and representing almost all phases of public opinion on all the questions of the day, religious and political, were the most eminently qualified to unite the discordant elements of a community in the interest of education; and with this view the trustees of the Masonic Institute were solicited to take charge of the school here. A mass meeting of the citizens was accordingly held, which resolved to place the school interests of Alvarado under their control, and pledged themselves to give them their united support, no Mason voting. A resolution was signed also by a large number of citizens who were not Masons.

The trustees, feeling then that they had sufficient authority to proceed, and having secured legal authority to control the school property by means of a lease for twenty-five years took charge of the school. They expended over $1,000 of their lodge funds, and many members also gave liberally of their individual means, even involving themselves in debt for the purpose, in order that a permanent good school be established and maintained. Seven acres of land were donated by L. B. Trulove, John Pyle, A. J. Brown and J. J. Ramsey.

Meanwhile, in 1875, Prof. I. A. Patton, who was teaching in Grimes county, was solicited to come and take charge of the school under the new arrangement. Complying, he commenced teaching in the old union church in September of that year. The Institute building was completed the next year, a two story frame, 30 x 70, and cost, including furnishings, etc., $4,000, or more. The public pulse was still in favor of the regime

adopted and continued to pledge their support. From the beginning the school was a decided success. The Professor had three assistants and taught there until 1878. The school had forty boarding pupils from adjoining sections of the country. The institution had a normal and even a law department. It was entirely an independent school, receiving no funds from the public treasury. In time, with a small appropriation from the public funds, a free school was added, and the institution finally grew wholly into a free or public school.

The school opened with only sixteen scholars, but during the year 168 pupils were in attendance, and this was gradually increased with the increase of population. At length the Masonic lodge sold the building to private parties.

Profs. Fuller and Posey, who had been assistants, succeeded Prof. Patton, and following them was Rev. J. R. Clarke from Cleburne.

In 1869 there was an "Alvarado College," with Rev. John Collier as president, assisted by four teachers. During the year 1890 a vote was taken on the proposition that the city take control of the public schools within its limits, with a majority against it. The city now has as good a system of schools, and as good school patrons, as any in the State.

SOCIETIES

Alvarado Lodge, No.314, F. & .A. M., was established in 1869, and the first officers were A. J. Chambers, W. M. J. C. Weaver, S. W.; and Joel Higgins, J. W. There are now 133 members, and the present officers are A. Y. Weaver, W. M.; R. A. Claunch, S. W.; T. S. Artnstrong, J. W.; W. R. Bounds, Secretary; W. B. Norman, Treasurer; V. L. Lamothe, Tiler. Preceding Mr. Weayer, W. M. St. John was W. M., who is now district deputy.

Alvarado Chapter, No. 132, R. A. M., was established in 1875, the first officers being, Ben Barnes, H. P.; H. C. Renfro, E. K.; and J. G. Woodson, E. S. The present officers are, W. M. St. John, H. P.; W. A. Houchin, E. K.; John Duke, S.; A. Y. Weaver, Secretary; and E. W. Carter, Treasurer.

The present Masonic building, on the north side of the square, is a two-story brick erected about 1881. The blue lodge first met at the union church building, in the second story, then at the old Masonic Institute, now known as the high-school building, and next in their present structure.

Alvarado Lodge, No.181, I. O. O. F., was organized May 18, 1881, by district deputy M. S. Kahle of Cleburne. First officers: A.Y. Weaver, N. G.; W. C. Wright, V. G.; R. M. Chapman, Secretary, and P. P. Smith, Treasurer. There were probably about seven or eight members, but now there are about ninety-five, and the present officers are: B. G. Prestridge, N. G.; V. L. Lamothe, V. G.; J. M. Bettis;, Secretary; W. C. Wright, Treasurer. This lodge owns a building on the north side of Poindexter street, a two story brick, well equipped as a lodge for the amplified work of the degrees.

Vashti Lodge, No.80, Daughters of Rebekah, was organized in 1886. There are now fifty members, and the officers are: Mrs. George Bristley, N. G.; Mrs. A. D. Deam, V. G.; Mrs. Sallie Baillio, Secretary; and Mrs. V. L. Lamothe, Treasurer. This lodge is in a strong, healthy condition.

Alvarado Lodge, No. 128, K. of P., was organized Augnst 13, 1890, by district deputy J. A. Lindgren of Cleburne, with the following officers: M. Sansom, P. C.; H. Voss, C. C.; F. B. Baillio, V. C.; W. B. Norman, R. of R. and S.; Charles Voss, M. of E.; N. F. Sparks, M. of F.; R. M. Chapman, Prelate, ——and twenty-seven members. The membership now is thirty-six, and the officers: F. B. Baillio, P. C.; G. C. Fahm, C. C.; George Bristley, V. C.; R. T. Campbell, Prelate; J. W. Stark, K. of R. and S.; W. E. Werkheiser, M. of E.; R. T. Duncan, M. of F. The lodge meets every week, at Odd Fellows' hall.

Alvarado Lodge, No. 1,503, K. of H., was establiehed March 19, 1879, with ten members. The first officers were: D. J, Baley, D.; C. M. Burks, V. D.; I. A. Patton, P. D.; G. W. Cotter, A. D.; N. Davis, R.; A. Y. Adair, Treasurer; F. M. Davis, G.; AM. Morgan, F. R.; J. B. Johnson, Guardian; W. R. Stockton, Chaplain; and H. J. Smith, Medical Examiner and Sentinel. There have been two deaths in this lodge. Regular meeting, first and third Wednesdays of each month, in the Opera House. R. J. Brown is now dictator, and J. W. Stark reporter.

Danube Lodge, No. 1,080, K. and L. of H., was organized July 28, 1885, by Deputy D. C. B. Connely, of Austin, Texas. The following were the first officers: W. M. St. John, P. P.; A. M. Morgan, P.; Mrs. Mary L. Ross, V. P.; T. F. Norman, Financial Secretary; G. W. Carter, Treasurer; Dr. C. A. Schultz, Medical Examiner. The lodge has increased from eighteen to forty-six members. The present officers are: Dr. B. G. Prestridge, P.; Mrs. Mary L. Rose, V. P.; W. M. St. John, Financial Secretary; and J. E. Stilwell, Treasurer. The lodge meets the first and third Thursday nights in each month, at the city hall. It has paid death claims to the amount of $12,000, and is financially a substantial institution.

Council Noland, Knights of the Golden Rule, was organized in Alvarado, March 16, 1881, with a membership of twenty-seven. First officers: Judge W. F. Ewing, P. C.; Colonel W. C. Smith, C.; J. D. Osborne, V. C. and Med. Ex.; Rev. Oscar Hightower, Prelate; V. M. Hightower, M. at A.; Thomas A. Scurlock, Secretary; W. B. Bishop, Treasurer; J. H. Vosburg, Herald; D. R. Moody, Janitor. The regular meetings, every alternate Friday night.

Alvarado Camp of Ex-Confederate Veterans. —December 21, 1889, a goodly crowd of those who wore the gray met at the opera house for the purpose of forming a camp. The house was called to order by Hon. J. C. Brannon, who stated the object of the meeting. Colonel G. C. Fahm was elected chairman, and F. B. Baillio, secretary. A committee on permanent organization was appointed, consisting of J. D. Griffin, I. A. Patton, W. A. Houchin, Jesse M. Hill and F. B. Baillio.

While this committee was out, engaged in consultation, Colonel T. G. Miller entertained the house with a feeling address. The committee then made the following report: That this organization be known as the Alvarado Camp of Ex-Confederate Veterans; and that its officers shall consist of a commander, vice-commander, quartermaster, adjutant and chaplain. For commander they recommended W. R. Bounds; vice-commander, G. C. Fahm; quartermaster, J. B. Griffin; adjutant, F. B. Baillio; chaplain, Rev. T. G. Miller.

They further recommended that a committee of five be appointed on constitution and by-laws, and report at the next meeting. The chairman appointed J. D. Griffin, I. A. Patton, Jesse M. Hill, W. A. Houchin and F. B. Baillio.

At this point Colonel J. L. Morgan, the eagle orator of Johnson county, in response to request, made a flaming speech, such as is seldom surpassed in logic and eloquence; everyone felt disappointed at the brevity of his address.

After resolving to assist in the formation of a camp at Cleburne, the meeting adjourned to January 2, following.

Following is the present roll of members:

NAME

CO.

REG.

STATE

ETC.

Adams, J. S.

B

22

Ga.

Battal

Albert, E. T.

F

10

Va.

 

Albert, H. S.

G

1

Va.

 

A1bert, J. H.

F

10

Va. Cav.

 

Anderson, G. W.

K

17

Ga.

 

Bast, N. W.

 

18

Tex. Cav.

 

Brannon, J. C.

   

Goring's Miss.

Battal

Brown, A. J.

E

32

Tenn.

 

Barnes, Ben

C

12

Tex.

 

Brady, G. W.

A

61

Ala. Inf.

 

Best, C. M.

B

9

Ala. Inf.

 

Blair, S. J.

D

7

Tenn. Cav.

 

Bounds, W. R.

D

 

Ashcraft’s Miss.

 

Bail1io, F. B.

   

Buckner's Escortt La.

 

Brand, D. P. M.

H

 

Roddy's Cav.

 

Brundage, W. E.

A

44

Ark.

 

Blackwell,

 

11

A1a.

 

Bledsoet J. S.

 

32

Tenn.

 

Brown, M. A.

A

60

Ala.

 

Boyd, M. E.

F

28

Ga. Inf.

 

Chamblee, R.J.

C

5

A1a.

 

Collins, J. L.

   

War Ship Alabama.

 

Clauncht, A. J.

D

11

Tex. Inf.

 

Claunch. R. A.

D

11

Tex. Inf.

 

Campbell, E. C.

   

Transp. Dept.. Dallas.

 

Culberson, W. A.

 

9

Ga.

 

Cates, J. J.

   

Petersburg (Va.) Art.

 

Corson, J.

H

11

Ala. Inf.

 

Carter, ————

C

15

Ark.

 

Champion, J. M.

 

2

Miss.

 

Davis, Harrison

 

1

Ga. Battery.

 

Davis, William

K

5

Tex.

 

Davis, B.F.

 

2

Ga. State Troops.

 

Easterwood, James A.

       

English, W. R.

   

Borders Tex.

 

Evans. L. S.

C

8

Ga. Cav.

 

Estes, H. H.

D

5

Ga.

 

Flippo, J. T.

 

26

Ala.

 

Fortenbury, H. F.

A

8

Ark.

 

Fahm, G. C.

B

22

Ga. Bat. Art.

 

Gibson, J. H.

 

22

Ga. Bat.

 

Griffin, J. D.

   

Roddy’s Scouts.

 

Gabrielle, L. F.

F

13

Ala.

 

Gill, S. S.

I

4

Tenn.

 

Grissom, H. B.

H

2

Miss. Cav.

 

Graham, W. M.

B

4

TeDn.

 

Gragg, O. F.

   

Ala.

 

Harrison, T.W.

 

14

Tenn.Cav.

 

Houchin, W. A.

A

3

Mo. Bat.

 

Hill, J. M.

C

1

Tenn. Cav.

 

Hildreth, W. H.

I

4

Tenn. Cav.

 

Hutchison, C. L.

H

63

Tenn.

 

Hill, B. F.

I

26

Tex.

 

Holcomb, H. P.

F

39

Ala.

 

Hutton, J. K. P.

A

4

Tenn. Cav.

 

Honea, S. N.

G

22

Morgan's Cav.

 

Jones, A. T.

G

7

Tex.

 

Jack, W. H.

   

Tex. State Troops.

 

Jones, H. R.

 

3

Va. Howitzers

 

Johns, N. H.

 

3

Ala.

 

Killough, S. B.

 

12

Tex. Cav.

 

Knight, L. S.

G

1

Tex.Cav.

 

Liles, J.

C

22

S.C.Rifles.

 

Martin, G. F.

H

26

Ala.

 

Moore, Patrick

H

43

Miss. Inf.

 

Miller, T. G., Lt. Col.

 

41

Tenn.

 

Morgan, W. P.

   

Cleburne's Escort.

 

Metze, Joe

   

Terry's Tex. Rangers.

 

McClung, J. W.

D

19

Tex. Cav.

 

Norman, L.

   

Tappan's Ark. Brig.

 

Orr, Reuben (colored)

 

36

Ala.

 

Odom, W. H.

F

12

Tex. Cav.

 

Oliver, J. H.

B

60

Ga.

 

Posey, J. R.

K

39

Ala.

 

Pollard, D. P.

B

5

Ala.

 

Powell, J. M.

A

 

Sleed's Battery.

 

Patton, I. A., 1st Lt.

B

1

Tex.

 

Porter, H. L.

C

12

Miss.

 

Powell, B. F.

F

26

Miss.

 

Porter, R. K.

A

17

Ga.

 

Rivers, A.

B

 

Terrell's Tex.

 

Rogers, R. H.

H

10

Ala.

 

Russell, H.

C

 

Griffin's Tex. Battery

 

Reynolds, E. T.

 

3

Ark.

 

Rutledge, R. G.

F

9

Tenn.

 

Strong, W. F.

D

4

Ari.

 

Smith, T. C.

G

30

Ala.

 

Sandlin, A. W.

G

1

Miss.

 

Stephens, W. D.

H

1

Tex.

 

Shropshire, D. N.

C

12

Tex. Cav.

 

Sparks, S. J. ,

K

1

Tex. L'g'n, Ross' Brig.

 

Thompson, E.

I

1

Miss. Cav.

 

Thompson, A. R.

C

 

Cobb's Legion.

 

Whitted, W. D.

I

40

Ala.

 

Westberry, Albert

 

40

Ga.

 

Walker, H. C.

   

Miss.

 

Watson, W. C.

D

19

Tex.

 

Wright, J. H.

H

4

Ala. Cav.

 

Young, J. E.

H

4

Ala.

 

The present officers of the camp are: W. A. Culberson, Captain; Jesse M. Hill, First Lieutenant; W. A. Houchin, Second Lieutenant; F. B. Baillio, Adjutant; J. D. Griffin, Quartermaster; C. L. Hutchison, Vidette.

Rev. W. C. Crawford, the only survivor of the signers of the Texas declaration of independeuce, is now living' with his daughter, Mrs. Kounce, two miles south of Alvarado. He is now about eighty-eight years of age, a zealous Methodist. That declaration of independence, the reader will recollect, was made in 1836, at Washington, on the Brazos.

Jesse M. Hill. GEDCOM ——When one would go in search of patriotism, patriotism of that intensity that would sacrifice not only fortune and every prospect of material success, but life itself, let him come to the South, the scene of the late Confederate Government. It has been wisely remarked that little credit would be due the North if an army of cowards only had been vanquished, and perhaps no one realizes the metal of his Southern brother better than does the man who fought in the Union ranks. Among the many citizens of the South who were loyal to their convictions in the face of the horrors of war, was Jesse M. Hill, whose history is outlined briefly as follows: He was born in McMinn county, Tennessee, January 15, 1839, and is a son of James and Elizabeth (Mayfield) Hill, natives of South Carolina; both the father and mother came to Tennessee in early life, their families removing to McMinn county about the year 1810. The maternal grandfather of Jesse .M. Hill was Jesse Mayfield; his father was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, and participated in some of the noted engagements of that struggle. James Hill was a farmer by occupation; he was not spared to give to his son that guidance and direction which only a parent's love suggests, his death occurring when his only child was between three and four years old; the mother passed from this life ten years later, so that in childhood Mr. Hill was thrown upon his own resources. He received a superior education for that day, and at the age of eighteen years apprenticed himself to a brick-maker; he had just finished his term of service in this capacity when the memorable year of 1861 dawned upon the world.

Responding to the call, he enlisted in Company C, First Tennessee Cavalry, Vaughan's Brigade. This company first served on escort duty as couriers and guards, was in several small skirmishes and participated in the battle at Rock Castle, Kentucky, under General Zollicoffer; the company then returned to Cumberland Gap and joined General Bragg on his raid through Kentucky, returning to Tennessee and remaining at Murfreesboro until ordered to Vicksburg; here Mr. Hill participated in the siege, was taken prisoner and paroled July 7, 1863, and exchanged September 12,1865. Company C then joined General Bragg immediately after the battle of Chickamauga, Tennessee, continuing with him some time; a portion of the company then went to McMinn county, gathering recruits and deserters, being reunited at the battle of Missionary Ridge only to be cut in two by the enemy. Mr. Hill next went with a portion of his company to General Longstreet, and his first engagement after the company was dismounted was at New Hope Church; the first important engagement after this was at Martinsburg, where some 400 or 500 Federals were captured; thence the company went to Maryland and participated in the struggle at Fredericksbnrg, going afterward to a point within three miles of the city of Washington and capturing the Outer works; they then fell back, crossed the Potomac river at Leesburg; then followed the engagement on the Washington and Winchester pike, thus ending a march of 600 miles, interrupted with numerous skirmishes. After the siege of Vicksburg he was made Third Lieutenant, and was promoted to the place of First Lieutenant, and finally became Captain, although his commission did not reach him until after the surrender. This was a just recognition of his merit, but Mr. Hill was willing that hostilities should cease with the new title untried. During General Early's raid Mr. Hill commanded a company, for at New Hope Church a great many officers were killed and captured, and from this cause Mr. Hill was senior officer, and really filled the position of Captain during a long period of the war. He was in the battle of Winchester and then at Fisher's Hill, where he was wounded in his left shoulder; he did not stop for treatment, though his arm was disabled; after the battle he remained at a farm house for ten or twelve days, and then made his way to General Early's headquarters, only to find his command had been sent into Tennessee. . He received a pass and transportation from General Early to Bristol, Virginia, where his company was rejoined. After this a few minor battles were fought, and then came news of Lee's surrender; the division moved over into North Carolina, thence to Washington, Georgia, and there disbanded.

After the declaration of peace Mr. Hill made his way directly to Texas, locating in Hill county, where he remained eighteen months. His first occupation was gathering up horses and cattle, and then he secured a contract for laying brick at Waco, thus going back to the vocation of his early youth. He carried on this trade until 1872, when he came to this county and settled where he now resides, purchasing 550 acres of land in 1873, and began making improvements; he has added to this tract until he now owns 900 acres, all of which is under cultivation excepting 150 acres, which are in pasture. He makes a specialty of raising fine mules for the market, and is the owner of some thoroughbred horses which might arouse the envy of a Kentucky breeder. He has contributed very materially to the development of this business in the county, and is able to exhibit some of the finest specimens of horses and mules in the county.

Mr. Hill was first married in September, 1870, to Miss Fannie A. Barnes, a daughter of .A. J. Barnes (see sketch of Moses Barnes). Mrs. Hill died in the year 1872. In 1875 Mr. Hill was united to Miss Maggie Atchley, a daughter of Dr. Calvin Atchley, of this county; he settled here in 1868, and died in 1882. To Mr. and Mrs. Hill were born three children: Willie, Mattie, who died at the age of two years, and Bettie. The mother of these children died in 1883. In February, 1886, Mr. Hill was married to Miss Hermione Barrett, of Anderson county, Texas, a daughter of John and Mary Barrett. Of this union four children have been born, only one of whom is living ——Jessie. Mrs. Hill is a worthy member of the Baptist church.

Mr. Hill has for many years been associated with the Masonic fraternity; he is also a demitted member of the I. O. O. F. of Alvarado.

CHURCHES

In 1863 there were four church denominations in Alvarado, all worshiping in the "union" building on ground deeded for the purpose by William Balch. It was a good two-story frame structure, the Masonic fraternity owning the upper story, while the lower story was used for both church and school purposes. Each denomination had its Sunday, and the fifth Sunday of the month, when there was one, was the property of the "world, the flesh and the devil," as the worldly member of the board of trustees factiously worded it. The building was controlled by a board of trustees, one from each denomination and one outsider. The first member from the "outside world" was Joel Higgins, and the second Dr. A. Y. Weaver. It was finally sold, torn down and taken away.

Methodism. ——Rev. W. G. Veal was among the first ministers of this denomination here, and soon after his work was begun in this community a society was organized. Rev. McShaun was another pioneer Methodist preacher in this vicinity, and subsequently Dr. Stockton.

The Methodists built a house of worship of their own in 1880-'81: size 32 x 60 feet. It was burned in 1886, the fire being occasioned by the explosion of a lamp under a cotton covering of an arbor addition just as the congregation was gathering for the evening service. The present edifice, south of the southwest corner of the public square, was erected in 1887, at a cost of $6,750. It is by far the finest church building in Johnson county. It will seat about 500.

The present number of members is about 220, of whom the class-leader is R. P. Sansom. There are seven stewards, ——I. A. Patton, T. W. Harrison, R. P. Sansom, B. M. Sansom, D. J. Howard, G. W. Skinner and Dr. H. C. Purdom. G. C. Fahm is superintendent of the Sunday-School, which has an average attendance of about eighty. In connection with the church is also a ladies' aid society, which has done a great deal of good work. Pastors ——Revs. Robertson, Johnson, L. Launtz, W. H. LeFevre. J. M. Barcus, C. S. McCarver, T. S. Armstrong, etc. J. M. Armstrong is the present incumbent. LeFevre, who was here when the present church was built, had also the greatest revival, when over 100 joined the church.

Presbyterianism was introduced into this county at Alvarado, as follows: At a meeting of the Presbytery of Central Texas, held in Waxahachie, May 30, 1874, upon application a committee was appointed to organize a Presbyterian church at Alvarado, "if the way be clear." The committee consisted of Revs. J. A. Walker, J. A. Smiley and W. C. Johnson, with Elder I. N. Buie, now at Hillsboro. April 24 the first members organizing were A. B. and John E. Painter, W. C. Alexander, Miss Elizabeth D. Alexander, Mrs. M. E. Alexander (wife of W. C.), Miss E. R. Painter, Mrs. M. Painter, Mrs. P. E. Gamble, Mrs. B. J. Walker (wife of J. A.), and Miss Jennie Hasty. Elders, A. B. Painter and W. C. Alexander; and Deacon, John E. Painter. Rev. J. A. Walker was engaged to preach every fifth Sunday, that being the only day in which the house of worship could be secured.

May 30, following, a session was held in which A. B. Painter's name was dropped from the roll, he having joined the Baptist church; and E. C. and E. Campbell were received as members. August 28, A. B. Painter returned to the fold, expressing regret at having left it. Mrs. Sarah Lilly was received as a member.

Very soon, however, this church was trausferred to Cleburne. See under that head for a continuation of its history.

Cumberland Presbyterian Church. ——Rev. Wear (or Weir) was one of the first ministers of this denomination at Alvarado and vicinity, continuing for a number of years; also Joseph Wilshire. About the close of the war, or immediately after, a congregation was organized at this place, with about thirty members.

The ruling elders were Joel Higgins, Mr. Snodgrass, Thomas Poindexter and William Ramsey. They had services in the union building already described, until the present edifice was erected, about 1888: costing about $2,000, the lot being donated. It is situated southeast of the square. There are now about forty-five members; there have been as many as ninety-nine. Present ruling elders: Dr. C. P. Hudson, ——— Woods, W. M. St. John, James St. John, Peyton Campbell, E. Y. Adair. Present pastor, R. L. McElree, preceded by W. C. Rushing, Daniel G. Molloy, I. S. Davenport, J. B. Groves, John Collier and another. Revs. McElree and Davenport have served each at two different periods. Rev. J. B. Groves and W. D. Wear did the most pastoral work here. Superintendent of the Sunday-school, Dr. C. A. Schultz; assistant superintendent, W. M. St. John.

Baptist Church. ——The credit of the first organization of a Baptist church in Alvarado is due to Rev. W. G. Gentry, at the old schoolhouse or "union church" and school building, October 6, 1861, and he was the pastor for a time. W. B. Senter was pastor 1863-'73, followed by J. R. Kelly, H. C. Renfro, J. R. Clarke, 1877-'86, J. W. Capps a year, A. M. Johnson six months, and L. S. Knight, the present incumbent, during the last two years. At present there are 170 members or more. This is the strongest church in the "Alvarado Baptist Association," comprising about thirty churches. The present deacons are J. M. Prestridge, William Jack, S. A. Bryant, S. H. Walker, Daniel A. Clayton, W. F. Moore. Messrs. Prestridge and Jack are the oldest members: the former is now clerk of the church. Mr. Bryant is also superintendent of the Sunday-school.

The present house of worship, brick, 40 x 60 feet, was erected between 1874 and 1878, and is now valued at $1,500. It is located a little south of west from the public square.

The primitive Baptists have a few small churches in the eastern part of Johnson county. Rev. T. G. Miller, from Tennessee, now deceased, preached several times in Alvarado, some years ago. This denomination now has an organized church near Rock Tank, ten miles south of Cleburne, where A. C. Spears is a deacon. The preachers there are Revs. John Berry and ———Shipman. Another church, called Mount Moriah, exists at Le Grande schoolhouse, about ten miles north of Alvarado. Ben Davis is one of the deacons.

The Christian Church has about thirty members in Alvarado. At a former period there has been a greater number. For the last year the pastor has been Elder J. J. Hall, residing at Cedar Hill, Dallas county. The local elders are W. R. Bounds and Mr. Worley. Religious services the third Saturday and Sunday of each month, at the South Alvarado Schoolhouse.

While on religious subjects we may incorporate by the way some examples of queer theological questions debated in Alvarado during the first week of December, 1879, between Dr. Caskey of the "Christian" church and Rev. Sledge of the Baptist church. Their propositions were:

  1. —The Scriptures teach that baptism is one of the pre-requisites to the remission of sins to the penitent believer. Caskey affirmed, Sledge denied.
  2. —The Scriptures teach that Missionary Baptist churches are the only visible churches of God on earth. Sledge affirmed, Caskey denied.
  3. —The Scriptures teach that the church to which Mr. Caskey belongs, called by him and his brethren the "Christian" church, and by J. J. Sledge the "Campbellite Society," is entitled to the name "Christian" according to the Scriptures. Caskey affirmed, Sledge denied.
  4. —In order to be saved sinners must be born of the spirit, repent and believe in the Lord Jesus Christ. Sledge affirmed, Caskey denied.
  5. —All true saints will be finally and completely saved in heaven. Sledge affirmed, Caskey denied.

CASUALTIES

The first fatal fire in Alvarado occurred July 29, 1881, when the store of W. A. Toland & Co. was consumed, with its entire stock of merchandise. Origin of the fire unknown. The building belonged to Dr. Ross; total loss aboot $5,000.

Six business houses were destroyed by fire December 21, 1882; loss $26,500.

A fire company was organized in the city in January, 1885.

October 31, 1885, about midnight, the residences of R. S. Dowdy, L. D. Mercer and another family, in the southern portion of the city, were burned, during a high wind. The fire was supposed to be set by tramps.

November 5, same year, the round-house of the Missouri Pacific Railroad at this place was burned, with a loss of $100,000. There were about twenty barrels of oil in the building, which soon caught fire, adding force to the already large blaze. Four engines in the establishment were destroyed. The fire originated in the oil room, but how is not known.

Joseph B. Prestridge, a highly respected citizen, was killed by a runaway mule team in the fall of 1885.

About the middle of May, 1875, a wind, accompanied with some rain, was savage enough to tear down fences, unroof houses, etc., in this vicinity.

May 25, 1885, while the justices' court was in session in the city hall, the building was struck by lightning and several were thrown to the floor, considerably stunned. Some of the timbers were splintered. A telephone wire and connection seemed to have saved the building. Only twelve or fifteen persons were present. The next day about seven o'clock in the evening considerable damage was done by the wind. The Methodist church was so torn up that it could not be repaired, and business houses, etc., were damaged to a considerable extent, the total loss being estimated at $4,575.

In 1886 Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Lightfoot, near Alvarado, had a little boy who at one time wandered away; and the mother, after looking about the house for some time without finding him, became alarmed and immediately began to search out of doors. In looking about she discovered the little one some distance from the house near the field fence. She at once hastened toward him, and as she made near approach she discovered her boy playing with a chicken snake's tail.

After recovering herself from the first shock she with great presence of mind calmly told the child to "throw the old stick away and go with her to the house." He did as requested. She then called her husband from the field, who shot the snake.

In 1880 there was a strike on the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad, from Kansas down through Texas. No violence was committed here. Captain A. J. Brown, at the head of the Alvarado Guards, was promptly on hand at the sheriff's bidding and prevented all trouble. After about three weeks the strikers were ordered back on the old terms by their respective societies.

MISCELLANEOUS

The people of Alvarado and vicinity have not been behind the rest of the patriots of the land of Brother Jonathan in the matter of Fourth-of-July celebrations, as they have had several magnificent ones. At the celebration of July 4, 1885, on College Hill, the principal addresses were delivered by Prof. I. A. Patton and Judge J. G. Woodson, the Declaration of Independence was read by Colouel G. C. Fahm, then a great dinner was enjoyed, after which various amusements occupied the attention of the multitude. There was a procession, a shaved and greased pig turned loose to be caught, a fat men's footrace, other foot-races, heavy-weight slug match with hard gloves, bran dance, tournament gander-pulling, croquet, swings, etc., and at night a nautical and temperance drama at the opera-house, by the Alvarado Amateur Troup, with eleven actors, the manager being Colonel Fahm. Large attendance. In the amusements M. Sansom and W. F. Bachman won the prizes. It is estimated that about 1,500 people were present. Glory enough for one day.

July 4, 1890, there was a grand celebration at the park; W. R. Bounds, master of ceremonies. The Stubblefield Cornet Band furnished the music, and Prof. I. A. Patton delivered the address of welcome, making a number of important and interesting statements. M. M. Crane, candidate for State Senator, and William Poindexter, delivered the addresses of the day. The number in attendance at this celebration was estimated at over 3,000, and no serious accident occurred to mar the pleasures of the day.

As an example of the editorial rhetoric of an Alvarado local correspondent of the Cleburne Chronicle, we quote the following from the issue of June 26, 1875:

"The whirligig of time brings its revenges. Not long since Uncle Sam found it necessary to chastise some of his naughty boys. Now they have had the exquisite revenge of a big laugh at Uncle Sam's expense. The old gentleman owns a mail route and employs a very dignified sulky in which to transport the mails. On Friday morning the vehicle drove up, exulting in all the pride, pomp and circumstance of official position, and yet Uncle Sam was not happy. He sighed for a steed whose strength was great, and that would paw the valley and swallow the wound; Alvarado had the man who could not see unmoved the laughing desire of the old

Uncle. He had a horse whose neck was clothed with thunder and his feet with lightning. This ‘noble’ animal was offered in exchange for the lean and hungry Government pony. Uncle Sam was happy again. The new steed was inducted into harness and bound to the sacred car. Crack goes the whip and round go the wheels. With a hop, skip and jump the horse proceeds. Uncle Sam, in the person of a post boy, cries ‘Wo, wo.' Horse gives a plunge and Uncle Sam's mail bag rolls down and out. Horse shies to the left and post boy to the right, taking a recumbent position on the ground. Horse tries his speed for fifty yards, then looks back to see what is the matter. One wheel of the car becomes too proud to walk the wound and whirls in the air, on an axle elevated to an angle of forty-five degrees; then a tumble, and the noble steed leaves but a wreck behind. Alvarado has a glorious life."

SOUTH ALVARADO

This is the "new town" created by the advent of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas railroad in 1881, joining south of old Alvarado, and is a part of the same corporation. It is beautifnlly situated upon an undulating incline leading westerly down to the depot. The principal places of business are, commencing at a certain corner and going round: C. B. Bomar, saloon; Duke & Simonds, drugs and books; in the second story, Hotel Meredith; Linch, Seaman & Co., groceries; Pope, Costolo & Co., dry goods; B. V. Bain, grocer; on the opposite side of the street: Golding Bros., grocers; J. J. Golding, hardware and agricultural implements; E. Hearn, boots and shoes; A. J. Flatt, hotel, sometimes called the "Barnes House." There is also a cotton gin in the place, owned by Rogers & Leeson.

The South Alvarado school building is a one-story frame, divided into three rooms, the primary department being in an addition recently built. About 250 scholars are in attendance; last year there were enrolled 217. There are three teachers, of whom W. A. Culberson is the principal.